Hij doorliep zowel een militaire als politieke loopbaan en werd na de verovering van Gallië en de daaropvolgende burgeroorlog tegen Pompeius dictator van het Romeinse Rijk We have included some key points you can teach your child. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He obtained the governorship of Farther Spain for 61–60 bce. Caesar’s gens (clan) name, Julius (Iulius), is also familiar in the Christian world, for in Caesar’s lifetime the Roman month Quintilis, in which he was born, was renamed “July” in his honour. The general and dictator Julius Caesar helped to build ancient Rome into a mighty empire. Gaius Iulius Caesar (deutsch: Gaius Julius Cäsar; * 13. Buste van Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar wordt op 13 juli in het jaar 100 v.Chr. A co-conspirator, Decmius Brutus, was Caesar's second heir in his will. A benevolent victor, Caesar even invited some of his defeated rivals to join him in the government. Allegedly a descendant of Trojan prince Aeneas, Caesar’s birth marked the beginning of a new chapter in Roman history. In his absence from Rome, Caesar was made a member of the politico-ecclesiastical college of pontifices; and on his return he gained one of the elective military tribuneships. Updates? After his death, Caesar quickly became a martyr in the new Roman Empire. Sulla ordered Caesar to divorce his wife or risk losing his property. He died on March 15, 44 BC), better known by his nomen gentilicium and name Julius Caesar, was a Roman military general and statesman who assumed an essential job in the occasions that prompted the death of the Roman Republic and the ascent of the Roman Empire. His mother, Servilia, was also one of Caesar's lovers. This significantly expanded the Roman Empire and accelerated the diffusion of Roman culture, into western Europe. By age 31, Caesar had fought in several wars and become involved in Roman politics. In 84 B.C., Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of a nobleman. The same year, Caesar wed Calpurnia, a teenager to whom he remained married for the rest of his life. Although he would serve just a year's term, Caesar’s rule proved instrumental in reforming Rome for his countrymen. The excavation of a new road in Ebbsfleet, Kent, revealed a five-meter-wide defensive ditch and the remains of pottery and weapons. The young Roman refused and escaped by serving in the military, first in the province of Asia and then in Cilicia. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Maar door ruzie met de latere leider van de partij, Sulla, werd hij gedwongen om daar klein-Azie te vluchten. He spoke first at assembly meetings, and Roman coins bore his face. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. By Caesar’s time, the number of surviving patrician gentes was small; and in the gens Julia the Caesares seem to have been the only surviving family. Gaius Julius Caesar (/ ˈ s iː z ər / SEE-zər, Latin: [ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈjuːli.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! An assassination ended his reign on the Ides of March. He decided to join the military at the age of 19. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Caesar now worked to undo the Sullan constitution in cooperation with Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius), who had started his career as a lieutenant of Sulla but had changed sides since Sulla’s death. In a daring display of his negotiation skills and counter-insurgency tactics, he convinced his captors to raise his ransom, then organized a naval force to attack them. By late 48 B.C., Caesar had subdued Pompey and his supporters in Italy, Spain and Greece, finally chasing Pompey into Egypt. Caesar’s calendar, the Julian calendar, is still partially in force in the Eastern Orthodox Christian countries, and the Gregorian calendar, now in use in the West, is the Julian, slightly corrected by Pope Gregory XIII. It seems unlikely that either of them had committed himself to Catiline; but Caesar proposed in the Senate a more merciful alternative to the death penalty, which the consul Cicero was asking for the arrested conspirators. Both had been republican officials, but the Julian clan’s greatest link to high power when Julius was born was through marriage. Pompey and his troops, however, were no match for Caesar’s military prowess. William Shakespeare - William Shakespeare - Julius Caesar: Written in 1599 (the same year as Henry V) or 1600, probably for the opening of the Globe Theatre on the south bank of the Thames, Julius Caesar illustrates similarly the transition in Shakespeare’s writing toward darker themes and tragedy. Caesar originally named the giraffe "camelopard" since it resembled a camel and a leopard. . Gaius Julius Caesar : Biografie A. Zijn leven • Hij werd geboren in 100 v. Chr. All the while, he was mindful of the political scene back home in Rome, hiring key political agents to act on his behalf. Julius Caesar Biography. Caesar was elected one of the curule aediles for 65 bce, and he celebrated his tenure of this office by unusually lavish expenditure with borrowed money. Scipio Africanus was a talented Roman general who commanded the army that defeated Hannibal in the final battle of the Second Punic War in 202 B.C. Caesar began an alliance with Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, a powerful military and political leader. It was evident that the misgovernment of the Roman state and the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility could not continue indefinitely and it was fairly clear that the most probable alternative was some form of military dictatorship backed by dispossessed Italian peasants who had turned to long-term military service. His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar. and assassinated March 15, 44 B.C., held almost every position of importance in the Roman government during his lifetime. In 69 B.C., Cornelia passed away. While Caesar's reforms greatly enhanced his standing with Rome's lower- and middle-class populations, his increasing power was met with envy, concern and angst in the Roman Senate. . Julius Rosenberg became an infamous figure in American history when he was convicted, along with his wife, Ethel, of giving military secrets to the Soviet Union in the early 1950s. Caesar’s stature was further enhanced in 74 B.C. Goldsworthy tells this story with great skill and narrative force . A brief biography of Caesar. This was a difficult task for even the ablest and most gifted noble unless he was backed by substantial family wealth and influence. Caesar consequently divorced Pompeia. Julius Caesar was murdered in the Roman Senate House by a group of nobles on March 15, 44 BCE. Julius Caesar: A Biography: Grant, Michael: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Caesar Augustus, or Octavian, became the first emperor of the Roman Empire after Julius Caesar died. This class had been partly dispossessed by an economic revolution following on the devastation caused by the Second Punic War. The traditional competition among members of the Roman nobility for office and the spoils of office was thus threatening to turn into a desperate race for seizing autocratic power. geboren als de zoon van Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo en Aurelia Cotta in de Romeinse wijk Subura. As Roman emperor, Nero’s reign was lavish and tyrannical. Similar to Alexander the Great, which I have just read previously by the very same author, many people today will undoubtedly have heard of the name Julius Caesar and more famously of his tragic ending but sadly, not much else. In public funeral orations in their honour, Caesar found opportunities for praising Cinna and Marius. . After having Pompey's assassins put to death, he met with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. In a controversial move, Caesar tried to pay off Pompey's soldiers by granting them public lands. März 44 v. Chr. Little is known of Caesar's early years, but during his youth an element of instability dominated the Roman Republic, which had discredited its nobility and seemed unable to handle its considerable size and influence. Caesar was stabbed many times during his murder but the physician Antistius determined that only one stab wound was fatal. This video is a brief overview of the rise and fall of Julius Caesar and his influence on the Roman Republic. Caesar also resurrected two city-states, Carthage and Corinth, which had been destroyed by his predecessors. Caesar afterward married Pompeia, a distant relative of Pompey. I'll make a few suggestions, depending on the nature and degree of your interest. Director of Studies, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1925–55. En alhoewel zijn naam wijst op een keizerlijk gehalte is hij dit nooit geweest. when he put together a private army and combated Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, who had declared war on Rome. Together they had a daughter, Julia Caesaris, in 76 B.C. Read the BBC History guide to Julius Caesar. But after Caesar's victory over Pompey, Brutus was encouraged to join the government. in Rom ; † 15. His father died when he was just 16, leaving Caesar as the head of the household. Caesar's great-grandnephew Gaius Octavian played on the late ruler's popularity, assembling an army to fight back the military troops defending Cassius and Brutus. The three leaders patched things up temporarily in 56 B.C. As Pompey further aligned himself with nobility, who increasingly saw Caesar as a national threat, civil war between the two leaders proved to be inevitable. [he] provides a great deal of vivid detail. - aldaar, Idus van maart (15 maart) 44 v.Chr.) It is improbable that Caesar deliberately sought monarchical power until after he had crossed the Rubicon in 49 bce, though sufficient power to impose his will, as he was determined to do, proved to mean monarchical power. The name Caesar became the Russian word tsar (or czar) and the German kaiser. Caesar changed the course of the history of the Greco-Roman world decisively and irreversibly. Caesar refused and came close to losing not only his property (such as it was) but his life as well. Experts from the University of Leicester and Kent County Council said the location was consistent with accounts of the invasion from the time period, and enabled them to pinpoint nearby Pegwell Bay as the likely landing spot for Caesar's fleet. Their marriage lasted just a few years, and in 62 B.C., the couple divorced. Caesar’s gens, the Julii, were patricians—i.e., members of Rome’s original aristocracy, which had coalesced in the 4th century bce with a number of leading plebeian (commoner) families to form the nobility that had been the governing class in Rome since then. Caesar's first important political success came in 63 B.C.E. Caesar was then elected praetor (an elected Roman official) for 62 B.C.E. While Caesar hailed from Roman aristocrats, his family was far from rich. This partial financial recovery enabled him, after his return to Rome in 60 bce, to stand for the consulship for 59 bce. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. After Crassus's death, Caesar led his army into Italy, defeated Pompey, and claimed the title of dictator. Julius Caesar biography Ch 6 Foundations ulius Caesar was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. After several alliances and military victories, he became dictator of the Roman Empire, a rule that lasted for just one year before his death. , when he was elected pontifex maximus, the chief religious office in Rome that carried important political possibilities. . His dunks and graceful play helped change the game. His victory over Caesar's assassins allowed Octavian, who assumed the name Augustus, to take power in 27 B.C. When Gaius Marius was overthrown by the dictator Sulla, … Military manpower was supplied by the Roman peasantry. Gaius Julius Caesar was born in the small town of Subura, Rome in July 100 BC. A power struggle ensued in Rome, leading to the end of the Roman Republic. Once again, Caesar displayed his abilities as a negotiator, earning the trust of both Crassus and Pompey and convincing them they'd be better suited as allies than as enemies. Around this time, Pompey—his old suspicions about Caesar's rise reignited—commanded that Caesar disband his army and return to Rome as a private citizen. For Caesar, the First Triumvirate partnership was the perfect springboard to greater domination. The Roman governing class had consequently come to be hated and discredited at home and abroad. Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his disdain for Pompey. Gaius Caesar, known as Caligula, succeeded Tiberius and served as Roman emperor from 37 to 41 A.D. Hall of Fame basketball forward Julius Erving, or "Dr. J," was an acrobatic player in the NBA and ABA. Julius Caesar was born in Subura, Rome in the year 100 BC. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). At the same time, Caesar was also careful to solidify his power and rule. The strategic political alliance among Caesar, Pompey and Crassus came to be known as the First Triumvirate. Later raakt Sulla in een burgeroorlog verwikkeld. Scholieren.com helpt jou om betere resultaten te halen en slimmere keuzes te maken voor de toekomst. Three years later, however, Crassus was killed in a battle in Syria. In een controversiële beweging probeerde Caesar Pompeius af te betalen's soldaten door hun openbare gronden toe te kennen. Crassus and Pompey, however, were intense rivals. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Greco-Roman society has been extinct for so long that most of the names of its great men mean little to the average, educated modern person. He began working closely with a man named Pompey, a military general, as well as Crassus, a Roman politician. Omissions? One of the perquisites of the praetorship and the consulship was the government of a province, which gave ample opportunity for plunder. In the uproar in the Senate, Caesar’s motion was defeated. Even people who know nothing of Caesar as a historic personality are familiar with his family name as a title signifying a ruler who is in some sense uniquely supreme or paramount—the meaning of Kaiser in German, tsar in the Slavonic languages, and qayṣar in the languages of the Islamic world. Julius Caesar was born; July 12, 100 BC. Caesars moeder bekommert zich om zijn opvoeding. And Romans had no desire for monarchical rule: Legend has it that it had been five centuries since they'd last allowed a king to rule them. She was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. Whoever had been consul in this critical year would have had to initiate such legislation, whatever his personal political predilections. In the midst of all the chaos, he got his way. Soon after, in 68 or 69 B.C., he was elected quaestor (a minor political office). De leiders van Rome gaan vooral voor hun eigenbelang en het leidt regelmatig tot ruzies en zelfs moorden binnen de regering. Biography: Julius Caesar: His Biography in 30 Events (Julius Caesar Biography, Biography Books, Biographies Of Famous People) (Biography Series Book 3) (English Edition) eBook: Weber, James: Amazon.nl: Kindle Store An aunt of the future dictator had married Gaius Marius, a self-made man (novus homo) who had forced his way up to the summit by his military ability and had made the momentous innovation of recruiting his armies from the dispossessed peasants. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. But Caesar’s name, like Alexander’s, is still on people’s lips throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds. A number of politicians saw Caesar as an aspiring king. Caesar banned driving carriages on city streets during the first ten hours of daylight. And he granted citizenship to a number of foreigners. In 61 to 60 B.C., Caesar served as governor of the Roman province of Spain. Caesar's inclusion of former Roman enemies in the government helped seal his downfall. Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar turned the Roman Republic into the powerful Roman Empire. Caesar and Cleopatra forged an alliance (and a sexual relationship) that ousted her brother and co-regent, Ptolemy XIII, and placed Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt. Caesar was born into a respectable Roman family and had a pretty ordinary upbringing. A Roman noble won distinction for himself and his family by securing election to a series of public offices, which culminated in the consulship, with the censorship possibly to follow. Not long after, Caesar secured the governorship of Gaul (modern-day France and Belgium). Julius Caesar had a son with Cleopatra named Caesarion, or "little Caesar". Caesar was elected a praetor for 62 bce. ebenda) war ein römischer Staatsmann , Feldherr und Autor , der maßgeblich zum Ende der Römischen Republik und zu ihrer späteren Umwandlung in eine faktische Monokratie beitrug.

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